What are the symptoms of chronic kidney failure and how is it diagnosed?

Chronic kidney failure can be completely asymptomatic and is often detected accidentally through routine haematochemical tests.

Symptoms such as malaise, asthenia (fatigue), polyuria (increased urine volume during the day), nocturia (urination predominantly at night), pale skin, oedema (especially in the lower limbs, such as swollen feet and ankles), dyspnoea (difficulty breathing), pruritus, appetite reduction, nausea, vomiting, uremic breath (with urine smell), difficulty concentrating, sleep disorders and paraesthesia in the limbs (alteration of sensitivity, generally perceived as tingling) might only appear in the most advanced phases.

Chronic kidney failure can be diagnosed through simple laboratory tests such as urine analysis and evaluation of creatinemia and glomerular filtration.

It is important to rely on a nephrologist, who can look for the cause of kidney failure and possible complications through further laboratory and practical research.